This program studies the interactions of the biological and physical worlds. The fossil record provides a deep-time window to the long-term evolutionary and ecological processes, which shaped both modern biodiversity and the Earth itself. Examining and explaining past responses to global change informs predictions for future challenges. These are grounded in universal mechanisms and processes, while taking into account lost biodiversity. The research combines cutting edge quantitative approaches with detailed examination of past and present biodiversity and the interrelationships of all life.